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Tax Facts 2018-19
Welcome to the 2018-19 Spring Statement Tax Facts
This document is prepared for guidance only. We recommend that you contact us for advice before acting on any information contained in the document and we cannot accept responsibility for any action taken without such advice.
Main personal allowances
|Personal income tax allowance (PA)||£11,850||£11,500|
|Marriage allowance (transferable)||1,190||1,150|
|Blind person's allowance||2,390||2,320|
- PA is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which Adjusted Net Income (ANI) exceeds £100,000, so PA is nil when ANI is £123,700.
- ANI is total taxable income, less qualifying pension contributions and Gift Aid donations.
- Marriage allowance is the transferable part of the PA and is available only to married couples and civil partners born after 5 April 1935. It can be transferred to their spouse or civil partner as long as the recipient is not a higher or top rate taxpayer.
- The rent-a-room exemption is available where the taxpayer lets out part of the home they live in as furnished residential accommodation.
- Where rent-a-room, trading or property income exceed the relevant limit above, that limit (rather than expenses) may be deducted from gross income.
Income tax bands
|Savings rate band||£5,000||£5,000|
|Basic rate band (BRB)||34,500||33,500|
|Higher rate band (HRB)||34,501-150,000||33,501-150,000|
|Additional rate||over 150,000||over 150,000|
|Personal Savings Allowance (PSA)|
|– Basic rate taxpayer||1,000||1,000|
|– Higher rate taxpayer||500||500|
- The BRB (Scotland: intermediate rate band) and additional rate threshold are extended by the grossed-up equivalent of personal pension contributions and Gift Aid donations paid by the taxpayer in the tax year, or treated as paid in the tax year.
- Taxable income usually uses up the rate bands in the following order:
- G 'general income' (employment, pensions, business profits, rent)
- S 'savings income' (mainly interest)
- D 'dividends' (distributions from companies/most unit trusts)
Income tax rates
|2018/19 & 2017/18|
|Rates differ for:||G||S||D|
- The PSA taxes interest at nil, where it would otherwise be taxable at 20% or 40%. It is not available to a top rate taxpayer.
- Dividends are usually taxed as the 'top slice' of income. The Dividend Allowance taxes the first £2,000 of dividend income at nil rather than the rate that would otherwise apply.
Income tax bands and rates - Scotland (2018/19)
|Top rate||over 150,000||46%|
- The Scottish rates and bands do not apply for savings and dividend income, which are taxed at normal UK rates.
- In 2017/18, the Scottish rates were the same as in the rest of the UK, except that the higher rate band began at £31,501 rather than £33,501.
Remittance basis charge
|Resident in the UK for||2018/19||2017/18|
|7 of the preceding 9 tax years||£30,000||£30,000|
|12 of the preceding 14 tax years||60,000||60,000|
|15 of the preceding 20 tax years||Deemed to be UK domiciled|
- The remittance basis charge (RBC) is payable by non-UK domiciled individuals who claim the remittance basis and who have been resident in the UK for the periods shown.
|Proportion of finance costs allowable against letting income||50%||75%|
- Finance costs comprise mainly interest, but includes related matters such as arrangement fees.
- A tax reducer at 20% of the disallowed finance costs is available to reduce the landlord’s income tax liability, but is subject to certain restrictions.
- The phasing out of deductible finance costs will continue through to 2020/21, when only basic rate relief as a tax reducer will be available.
- These rules do not affect qualifying furnished holiday lets, commercial property or corporate landlords.
High Income Child Benefit charge (HICBC)
- Only applicable to families who receive child benefit, where adjusted net income of highest earner is above lower threshold.
- HICBC is equivalent to 1% of child benefit received by the family, for every £100 of adjusted net income over lower threshold.
- Highest earner in family must declare child benefit received by them or their partner on their tax return.
- The recipient of child benefit can elect not to receive it in order to avoid the HICBC, without losing their right to accrue certain state benefits. Child benefit payments can subsequently be recommenced if the claimant chooses.
|Lifetime Allowance (LA)||£1,030,000||£1,000,000|
|Annual Allowance (AA) - maximum||40,000||40,000|
|Annual Allowance - minimum||10,000||10,000|
|Money Purchase Annual Allowance (MPAA)||4,000||4,000|
- Contributions to registered personal pension schemes are paid net of basic rate tax. The policyholder pays 80% and HMRC pay 20%.
- Tax relief at the taxpayer’s marginal income tax rate is given on pension contributions up to 100% of earnings, capped by the AA. Relief is given by increasing the basic rate band (Scotland: intermediate band) and higher rate threshold by the grossed-up amount of the contributions paid in the year.
- Those with little or no UK relevant earnings can make pension contributions up to £3,600 gross (£2,880 net) per year.
- AA can be increased by unused allowance brought forward from the previous three tax years.
- AA is usually tapered down by £1 for every £2 of adjusted income over £150,000, to a minimum of £10,000.
- An annual allowance charge is levied at the individual’s marginal rate for pension inputs exceeding the annual allowance.
- Employers can contribute to the employee's pension fund up to the AA per year, less any contributions made by the individual. The employer will enjoy tax relief on those contributions under the normal rules for business expenses.
- Investors in personal and other defined contribution pension schemes can access all of their pension savings once they reach age 55.
- When the investor takes benefits from such pension schemes under flexi-access drawdown, up to 25% of the accumulated fund can be drawn as a tax-free lump sum. The balance is taxed at the investor's marginal rate of tax that applies in the year those benefits are drawn.
- LA is measured against the capital value of the pension benefits at the time they are first taken.
- LA charge is 55% if funds exceeding the LA are taken as a lump sum, or 25% if they are taken as income.
- MPAA replaces AA where taxpayer has started to take taxable income from a defined contribution scheme. There is no carry forward of unused MPAA.
|Maximum amount per week||2018/19||2017/18|
|Old state pension – Single person||£125.95||£122.30|
|Old state pension – Married couple||201.45||195.60|
|New state pension||164.35||159.55|
- An individual is eligible to draw the state retirement pension when he or she reaches State Pension Age (SPA). This currently varies for men and women, but for younger people the SPA is gradually increasing to 68.
- Individuals who reach SPA on or after 6 April 2016 receive the new state pension, which replaced the old state pension, the second state pension and pension credit.
- An individual who qualifies for the state pension may choose to defer claiming it. Any deferred pension will be paid at a higher rate than the normal pension.
- The state pension is taxable.
|Annual investment limits||2018/19||2017/18|
|Individual Savings Account (ISA)|
|– Overall limit||£20,000||£20,000|
|– Lifetime ISA (LISA)||4,000||4,000|
|Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)||2,000,000||1,000,000|
|Seed EIS (SEIS)||100,000||100,000|
|Venture Capital Trust (VCT)||200,000||200,000|
|Social Investment Tax Relief (SITR)||1,000,000||1,000,000|
- ISA investors can invest in any combination of cash or shares, up to the overall limits shown. The £4,000 LISA limit is part of the general ISA limit of £20,000, not additional to it.
- Taxpayers aged between 18 and 40 may open a LISA and invest up to £4,000 each year, which qualifies for a 25% Government bonus on amounts invested up to the age of 50.
- This benefit is retained as long as the money is either
- put towards a first home costing up to £450,000, or
- kept in the account until reaching age 60, or
- withdrawn after being diagnosed with a terminal illness.
National Insurance Contributions (NIC)
Class 1 NIC thresholds 2018/19
|Lower Earnings Limit (LEL)||£116||£503||£6,032|
|Primary Threshold (PT)||162||702||8,424|
|Secondary Threshold (ST)||162||702||8,424|
|Upper Secondary Threshold (UST)||892||3,863||46,350|
|Upper Earnings Limit (UEL)||892||3,863||46,350|
- No NIC are payable by employee or employer on earnings up to the PT (employees) or ST (employer).
- No employee NIC are payable once the employee reaches state retirement age, but employer NIC continue to be payable.
- No employer NIC are payable on earnings up to the UST for employees aged under 21, or apprentices aged under 25, at the date of the payment.
- No employee NIC are payable on earnings between the LEL and the PT, but when reported by the employer, the employee receives credit towards the State Pension.
Class 1 NIC rates 2018/19
|PT/ST to UEL/UST||12%||13.8%|
|Above the UEL/UST||2%||13.8%|
- Employers and employees both contribute at rates dependent on the level of earnings during a weekly, monthly or annual earnings period.
- A person with more than one employment can defer the payment of some employee NIC until after the end of the tax year. The total amount payable is then checked and limited, so the full 12% rate is only applied to income between the PT and the UEL.
- An 'employment allowance' of £3,000 per qualifying business gives exemption from Class 1 Employer NIC. Some businesses are excluded, including certain sole director companies. Employee NIC are unaffected.
Class 2 NIC
|Rates per week||2018/19||2017/18|
|Small Profits Threshold (SPT)||6,205||6,025|
Self employed people pay Class 2 NIC if their profits exceed the SPT for the tax year.
Class 3 NIC
|Rates per week||2018/19||2017/18|
|Class 3 flat rate||£14.65||£14.25|
Anyone who wants to maintain State Pension rights may pay voluntary Class 3 NIC.
Class 4 NIC
|Lower profits limit (LPL)||£8,424||£8,164|
|Upper profits limit (UPL)||46,350||45,000|
|LPL to UPL||9.0%||9.0%|
- Class 4 NIC are payable on profits from UK trades or professions that exceed the lower profits limit and are chargeable to Income Tax.
- Both Class 2 and Class 4 NIC are collected through self assessment.
- An individual who is both employed and self employed may pay Class 1, Class 2 and Class 4 NIC, subject to the maximum limit for the year.
Car benefit 2018/19
|Percentage of chargeable value|
|CO2 emissions (g/km)||Petrol||Diesel|
|Above 94||Add 1% for every 5g/km|
|Above 179 (petrol)/ 159 (diesel)||37%||37%|
- Where the car is provided by the employer, the employee is taxed on the 'cash equivalent', calculated as a percentage (based on its CO2 emissions) of the vehicle’s chargeable value.
- The chargeable value is the vehicle’s list price when new plus the cost of most accessories added, less any capital contribution of up to £5,000 from the employee.
- The employer must also pay Class 1A NIC at 13.8% on the cash equivalent amount of the benefit.
- The percentages for petrol cars apply to diesel cars that meet the RDE2 standard.
Car fuel benefit
- Where fuel is provided by the employer for private use in a company car, the percentage used to calculate the car benefit is applied to the benefit multiplier in order to determine the taxable benefit.
- The benefit is charged without reduction for contributions by the employee, unless all private fuel is paid for (in which case there is no benefit). This must be done by 6 July following the end of the tax year, unless the fuel benefit is "payrolled", in which case the deadline is 1 June following the end of the tax year.
- Where the employer provides the car and the employee provides thefuel, HMRC’s advisory fuel mileage rates can be used to reimbursethe cost of fuel used on business journeys. Those rates are updatedeach quarter and published at www.gov.uk/government/publications/advisory-fuel-rates.
|Zero emissions van||1,340||646|
If the private use of a van is restricted to home-to-work travel, there is no tax charge, unlike for company cars.
|Official interest rate||2.5%||2.5%|
- Where the total amount loaned to the employee exceeds £10,000 at any point in the tax year, the cash equivalent benefit is the excess of the official rate over any interest actually paid by the employee to the employer (provided there is a contractual agreement to pay that interest).
- Loans from a close company to directors or shareholders of the company may also generate a tax charge for the company.
Tax-free mileage allowances
|Employee's own transport||per business mile|
|Cars, first 10,000 miles||45p|
|Cars, over 10,000 miles||25p|
- Passenger must be completing the same business journey.
- For all except the business passengers allowance, if the employer does not pay the full mileage rate, the employee can claim tax relief on any shortfall from HMRC.
|Weekly exempt amount||2018/19||2017/18|
|Basic rate taxpayer||£55||£55|
|Higher rate taxpayer||28||28|
|Additional rate taxpayer||25||25|
- The employer-provided childcare voucher scheme was due to close to new entrants from 6 April 2018, but this has now been delayed by at least six months.
- Employees who joined the scheme before 6 April 2011, and are still employed by that employer, continue to receive a benefit of £55 per week, whatever their marginal rate of tax.
- Tax-free Childcare (TFC) accounts are now available to all eligible parents. You cannot use TFC if you are receiving childcare vouchers.
- Under TFC, where both parents work and earn a specified minimum income (but neither earns more than £100,000 per year), they are able to put up to £8,000 a year into an account, which the Government will top up with 25p for every £1 contributed by the parents.
- A TFC account can only be used to pay for childcare up to the age of 12, except for disabled children, where the limits are doubled and contributions can continue up to the age of 17.
- Unlike the voucher scheme, TFC is available to the self employed.
Employee share schemes
|Type of share scheme||Tax advantages|
|Share Incentive Plan (SIP)|
|Free shares worth up to £3,600pa. Employee can buy up to £1,800pa out of pre-tax pay. Employer can match bought shares with up to two more.||If shares left in the scheme for at least five years: no Income Tax or CGT on the value when they leave the scheme. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.|
|Enterprise Management Incentive (EMI)|
|Trading companies with fewer than 250 employees and assets up to £30m can grant options to selected employees to buy up to £250,000 worth of shares.||No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised within ten years of option grant. Shares qualify for 10% rate of CGT on disposal if grant is at least one year before disposal.|
|Company Share Option Plan (CSOP)|
|Share options to buy up to £30,000 of shares can be granted to employees.||No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised between three and ten years of grant. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.|
|Save As You Earn (SAYE)|
|Employees contribute up to £500 a month to a savings scheme, and use money to exercise share options.||No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised three years or more after the grant of option. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.|
- Generally, employees are charged to Income Tax on the value of shares that they are given or are issued to them by their employer, less any amount paid for the shares. NIC are also charged if the company is quoted, or the shares can be easily sold. If the employer operates one of the above tax-advantage schemes, the tax charges may be eliminated, reduced or deferred.
- The employer must register the share scheme with HMRC, using the online Employment Related Securities (ERS) system, by 6 July following the end of the tax year in which the scheme is implemented.
- Employers must file an annual return for each share scheme online through ERS by 6 July each year.
- The above is a very brief summary of the main tax advantaged share schemes; other conditions apply.
Main exempt benefits
|Benefit item||Limit of exemption|
|Mobile phone||One per employee|
|Subsidised meals||For all employees in a staff canteen|
|Works buses||Must be used only or substantially by employees or their children|
|Pension contributions||Annual allowance (see Investment Reliefs)|
|Personal incidental expenses when staying away from home||£5 per night, £10 if abroad|
|Qualifying relocation expenses||£8,000 per employee per move|
Many employee benefits are not charged to tax; the principal ones are listed above.
Capital Gains Tax
Annual Exempt Amount (AEA)
|Individuals and deceased estates||£11,700||£11,300|
- Each individual is entitled to an AEA, but that exemption may be denied if they claim the remittance basis (see Personal Taxation).
- The AEA cannot be transferred, nor carried forward or back to another tax year.
|2018/19 & 2017/18|
|Individual - to limit of basic rate band||18%||10%|
|Individual - above basic rate band||28%||20%|
|Trusts and deceased estates||28%||20%|
- CGT is payable on capital gains made in the tax year, after deduction of capital losses, available reliefs and the annual exemption.
- Receipts of carried interest by venture capital investors are taxed at the same rates as residential property.
- When a chargeable asset is given away, the donor is treated as receiving the full market value and is liable for CGT accordingly.
- There is no charge on disposals between spouses or registered civil partners who are living together. On such disposals, the transferee takes over the transferor’s CGT cost.
- There is no CGT on gains accrued to the date of a taxpayer’s death.
Entrepreneurs' Relief (ER)
|CGT on qualifying disposals||10%||10%|
- Disposals made by an individual or certain trustees can qualify for ER.
- The asset disposed of must have been owned for at least a year and be one of:
- a business or an interest in a business
- business assets sold within three years of the business ceasing
- shares in a trading company, of which the individual is an officer or employee and either holds at least 5% of the ordinary share capital or acquired the shares under an EMI scheme
- assets used by the shareholder’s personal company or partnership and sold at around the same time as 5% or more of either the company's shares or the partnership interest.
- This relief gives a 10% CGT rate to certain investors in qualifying unquoted trading companies.
- Investors cannot be paid directors or employees of the company and must hold newly issued shares (acquired on/after 17 March 2016) for a minimum period of 3 years beginning on/after 6 April 2016. Thus the earliest date on which a qualifying disposal can be made is 6 April 2019.
Other CGT reliefs
|Taxpayer's only or main home||Gain is exempt for the periods the taxpayer lives there, or is deemed to live there, plus the last 18 months of ownership.|
|Chattels (tangible movable property)||If bought and sold for less than £6,000.|
|Gifts to charity||Not charged to CGT, and gifts of quoted shares and land also enjoy an income tax relief.|
|Assets which become of negligible value||Deemed to be sold at nil, to create loss, when an election is made.|
Corporation Tax (CT)
|Corporation Tax rate||19%||19%|
- Most companies must pay their Corporation Tax within nine months and a day after the end of the accounting period.
- Large companies or groups generally make four quarterly payments on account of Corporation Tax, starting in the seventh month after the start of a 12-month accounting period. The payment is made on the 14th day of the relevant month, with interest running on any balance due until final settlement of the period's liability.
- All companies must file Corporation Tax returns online within 12 months after the end of the accounting period.
Research and Development
|SME enhanced deduction||130%||130%|
|Large company above the line credit (RDEC)||12%||11%|
- The above enhanced deduction is for qualifying revenue expenditure on qualifying R&D projects; various conditions apply to both terms.
- Where an SME makes a loss it can surrender that loss for a payable tax credit worth 14.5% of the loss.
- RDEC is a taxable expenditure credit for qualifying R&D.
|Intangible assets: goodwill, know-how and patent rights||Deduction given according to depreciation in the accounts, unless the circumstances in Note 1 below apply.|
|Patent income||10% rate of CT.|
|Creative industries producing: films, high-end or children's TV programmes, video games or theatre productions||Enhanced deductions for certain expenditure and losses surrendered for payable tax credits.|
- No deduction available for any goodwill acquired from 8.7.2015 and to goodwill on incorporation from 3.12.2014.
- The above is a brief summary of selected reliefs available to companies; other conditions apply in each case.
Cash basis - trading businesses
|Entry threshold – turnover up to:||£150,000||£150,000|
|Exit threshold – turnover not more than:||300,000||300,000|
- Entry threshold is £300,000 for Universal Credit claimants.
- Unincorporated trading businesses with annual turnover within the above limits can choose to calculate taxable profits on the 'cash basis' – income received and expenditure paid, rather than invoiced or accrued.
- Deduction for loan interest is limited to £500 per year.
- Losses can only be carried forward.
- Certain businesses are not permitted to use the cash basis, including: farmers using the herd basis, persons using profit averaging, and LLPs.
- Unincorporated property businesses can use the cash basis from 6 April 2017. The key differences to the rules for trading businesses are:
- the entry and exit thresholds are both £150,000;
- cash basis is the default position for such businesses, but they can elect to use accrual accounting;
- there is no £500 restriction on interest costs
Flat rate deductions
|Item used for business||Permitted deduction|
|Taxpayer's car or goods vehicle||Up to 10,000 miles pa||45p/mile|
|Over 10,000 miles pa||25p/mile|
|Taxpayer's home (use per month)||25 - 50 hours||£10/month|
|51 - 100 hours||£18/month|
|101 hours or more||£26/month|
|Business premises partly used as home (e.g. public house or B&B)||Private use adjustment|
- Unincorporated businesses can choose the above fixed rate deductions to use instead of calculating the business proportion of actual expenditure.
- Use of home deduction covers power, internet, telephone, but not council tax or mortgage interest.
- Use of vehicle does not cover finance element of lease or hire purchase costs for vehicle.
- Use of business premises amounts are deducted from the actual expenses of running the building so that the personal costs of resident business owners are excluded.
Plant and machinery
|Period of expenditure from||1.4.2018||1.4.2016|
|Annual Investment Allowance 100%||£200,000||£200,000|
|Writing down allowance – general pool||18%||18%|
|Writing down allowance – special rate pool||8%||8%|
- Neither capital expenditure nor depreciation is generally allowed as an expense.
- The writing down allowance spreads the cost over several years, and is not related to the accounting depreciation.
- Special rate pool includes long life assets, plant integral to buildings and thermal insulation.
|CO2 emissions of vehicle (g/km) |
|100%||Up to 50||Up to 75|
|18% pa (in general pool)||Up to 110||Up to 130|
|8% pa (in special rate pool)||Above 110||Above 130|
- The 100% allowance is only available if the car is acquired new, not second-hand.
- If purchased before April 2013, the 8% allowance only applies to cars with CO2 emissions over 160g/km.
- Unincorporated businesses: the allowance is reduced for private use of the car.
Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (ATED)
|Property value||Annual charge to|
|£0.5m – £1m||£3,600||£3,500|
|£1m – £2m||7,250||7,050|
|£2m – £5m||24,250||23,550|
|£5m – £10m||56,550||54,950|
|£10m – £20m||113,400||110,100|
- The ATED applies to residential properties owned via a corporate structure, unless the property is used for a qualifying purpose.
- There are many reliefs that can remove or reduce the charge, but in order to claim a relief, a Relief Declaration Return must be submitted.
- The ATED return and tax due must generally reach HMRC by 30 April within the relevant year.
Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)
|Purchase price||Rate on band|
|Up to £125,000||Nil|
|£125,001 - £250,000||2%|
|£250,001 - £925,000||5%|
|£925,001 - £1.5m||10%|
- From 1 April 2016, a supplement of 3% of the total purchase price applies where someone owning one or more residences acquires an additional residence for more than £40,000, unless they are replacing their main residence. This supplement also applies to LBTT and LTT (see below) and all corporate purchasers.
- From 22 November 2017, first-time buyers purchasing a property for up to £500,000 pay SDLT at a nil rate on the first £300,000 of the price.
- Where purchaser is a company (or partnership including a corporate member) and price is over £500,000, SDLT is 15% of total purchase price, if exemptions or reliefs do not apply.
- New leases with a net present value of rents exceeding £125,000 attract SDLT of 1% of that excess.
|Purchase price for freehold||Rate on band|
|Up to £150,000||Nil|
|Between £150,001 and £250,000||2%|
|Net present value of rent for lease||Rate on band|
|Up to £150,000||Nil|
|Between £150,001 and £5m||1%|
Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) - Scotland
|Purchase price||Rate on band|
|Up to £145,000||Nil|
|£145,001 - £250,000||2%|
|£250,001 - £325,000||5%|
|£325,001 - £750,000||10%|
For first-time buyers, the nil band is to be extended to £175,000, from a date to be confirmed.
|Purchase price||Rate on band|
|Up to £150,000||Nil|
|£150,001 - £350,000||3.0%|
- The above rates of LBTT also apply to any lease premium on commercial properties.
- Leases with an NPV of rents exceeding £150,000 attract LBTT of 1%.
Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LTT) - Wales
|Purchase price||Rate on band|
|Up to £180,000||Nil|
|£180,001 - £250,000||3.5%|
|£250,001 - £400,000||5.0%|
|£400,001 - £750,000||7.5%|
|£750,001 - £1.5m||10%|
LTT replaces SDLT in Wales from 1 April 2018.
|Purchase price for freehold||Rate on band|
|Up to £150,000||Nil|
|£150,001 - £250,000||1%|
|£250,001 - £1m||5%|
|Net present value of rent for lease||Rate on band|
|Up to £150,000||Nil|
|Between £150,001 and £2m||1%|
Value Added Tax
|VAT rate||VAT fraction|
|Lower or reduced rate||5%||1/21|
- Lower rate applies to a small range of supplies, including domestic fuel and power and some conversions of residential property.
- Zero rate applies to a range of supplies, including some types of food, hard-copy books and newspapers (not electronic), new houses and children's clothes. VAT is charged at a zero rate to the customer, but the supplier can recover VAT on costs.
- Exempt supplies include many land-related supplies, insurance, finance, education, health and welfare, and non-profit sports clubs. No VAT is charged to the customer, but the supplier can’t recover VAT on costs.
|Registration – turnover for last 12 months||£85,000|
|Deregistration – turnover next 12 months||83,000|
- An unregistered business must register for VAT if it has made taxable supplies that equal or exceed the registration threshold in the last 12 months, up to any month-end, or if it expects to exceed that threshold in the next 30 days alone. Taxable supplies include reduced rate and zero-rated sales.
- A VAT-registered business can apply to deregister if it can satisfy HMRC that taxable supplies in the next year will not exceed the deregistration threshold.
- Most VAT returns are prepared for three-month periods, and must be filed electronically within seven days of the end of the month following the return period.
- Payment of VAT must be made electronically, and must be received by HMRC by the same deadline as the return or be paid by direct debit.
- If you supply automated digital or broadcasting services to non businesses in other EU countries, you must charge VAT at the rate that applies where the customer belongs. The overseas VAT must be charged on any amount of sales, even if you are not VAT-registered in the UK.
- To charge overseas VAT you must either register for VAT in the customer’s country or register through HMRC's VAT-MOSS system.
Small business schemes
|Flat-rate scheme (FRS)||£150,000||£230,000|
- When using FRS, the VAT paid to HMRC by the business is a fixed percentage (based on business category) of 'FRS turnover' rather than the net of output tax over input tax.
- Businesses in first year of VAT registration are entitled to a 1% discount on the normal FRS percentage for their business category.
- Under FRS, input VAT is not recoverable, unless it relates to the purchase of a capital asset costing £2,000 or more (including VAT).
- Under annual accounting, the business files a single VAT return each year instead of one every three months.
- When using the cash accounting scheme, the business only pays VAT to HMRC when its customers have paid the business, but it can only recover VAT on expenses actually paid for, rather than accrued.
Inheritance Tax (IHT)
|Rates and thresholds||2018/19||2017/18|
|Nil Rate Band (NRB)||£325,000||£325,000|
|Residential enhancement (RNRB)||125,000||100,000|
|Tax paid on legacies on death||40%||40%|
|Tax paid if at least 10% of net estate|
is left to charity on death
|Gifts made up to seven years before|
death (see lifetime gifts)
|Chargeable lifetime transfers to trusts||20%||20%|
- RNRB is available for transfers of a main residence (or assets of an equivalent value if the main residence has been sold) to direct descendents. It tapers away at the rate of £1 for every £2 of estate value above £2m
- Up to 100% of the proportion of a deceased spouse's/civil partner's unused NRB and RNRB may be claimed to increment the current NRB and RNRB when the survivor dies.
- Gifts or legacies to charities are not charged to IHT.
- IHT due on a deceased's estate and on gifts within seven years of death is generally due six months after the month of death, but in practice it must be paid before probate is granted.
- If the donor pays the IHT due on a chargeable lifetime transfer to a trust, the rate is 25% rather than 20%.
- IHT on chargeable lifetime transfers to trusts is payable within 6 months from the end of the month of transfer
|Reduced tax charge on gifts up to seven years before death|
|Years before death||0-3||3-4||4-5||5-6||6-7|
|Percentage of IHT|
death charge payable
Lifetime gifts between individuals ('potentially exempt transfers') are only charged to IHT if the donor dies within seven years of the gift.
|Amount of relief||Conditions|
|£3,000 pa||Amount per donor; unused exemption can can be carried forward one year|
|£250 pa||De minimis amount per recipient|
|Unlimited||Regular gifts out of surplus income|
|Unlimited||To UK domiciled spouse or civil partner|
|£325,000||To non-domiciled spouse/civil partner|
|£5,000||From parent of party to marriage|
|£2,500||From a grandparent (or remoter ancestor) of a party to a marriage, or from one party of a marriage to the other|
|£1,000||From any other person to a party to a marriage|
Exemptions for gifts on marriage apply also to civil partnerships.
Business and agricultural property
|Amount of relief||Property and conditions|
|100%||All shareholdings in unquoted trading companies; an unincorporated business or interest in such a business|
|50%||Controlling shareholding in quoted company; land and buildings used by either a trading company controlled by the owner, or a partnership where he is a partner|
|100%||Agricultural value of qualifying farmland and buildings|
In all cases the property must have been owned for at least two years, and other conditions apply.
|Type of trust||Life interest||Discretionary|
|Rate on dividend income||7.5%||38.1%|
|Rate on other income||20%||45%|
|CGT rate on residential property||28%||28%|
|CGT rate on other gains||20%||20%|
|CGT annual exemption||£5,850||£5,850|
- Trustees are liable to Income Tax on the trust income, CGT on the trust gains and, in some circumstances, IHT.
- Discretionary trusts pay tax at 7.5% or 20% on income used to pay trust expenses and on another £1,000 of income, before paying at the main rates (38.1% or 45%).
- Discretionary trusts for vulnerable beneficiaries (such as disabled people) may reduce their effective tax rates if an election is made.
- The CGT annual exemption is divided between trusts established by the same settlor since 6.6.1978, to a minimum of £1,170.
- Trustees are liable to pay IHT in a variety of circumstances; appropriate professional advice is essential.
- Beneficiaries of life interest trusts ('liferent' trusts in Scotland) are treated as entitled to the income of the trustees, and pay tax on it in the year it arises to the trust, with a credit for tax paid by the trustees.
- Beneficiaries of discretionary trusts pay tax on income distributed to them by the trustees, which is treated as paid with a tax credit of 9/11 of the cash received (i.e. a £45 tax credit for every £55 of income distributed).
|1st payment on account||31 January||2019||2018|
|2nd payment on account||31 July||2019||2018|
|Balancing payment||31 January||2020||2019|
|Capital Gains Tax||31 January||2020||2019|
|Class 1A NIC||19 July||2019||2018|
|Class 1B NIC||19 October||2019||2018|
- Payments on account for 2018/19 are based on 2017/18 self assessed Income Tax, Class 2 NIC and Class 4 NIC.
- Non-residents with gains on UK residential property must pay CGT within 30 days of disposal, unless already filing a self assessment tax return.
- Missing any payment dates leads to interest being charged at 3%.
- Missing the balancing payment date by 30 days will lead to a 5% penalty.
- When the balancing payment is 6 and 12 months late, further 5% penalties apply on each occasion.
- Employment income is charged to both Income Tax and to Class 1 NIC.
- Tax and NIC are normally paid by the employer through the PAYE system, under which the PAYE code makes adjustments for tax reliefs due and some tax due on other income.
- Where a payment date is the 19th of the month, any cheque must reach HMRC by that date, or the business day preceding it (if the 19th falls on a week-end or Bank Holiday). Online payments can reach HMRC by 22nd of the month without incurring interest.
- An employee who has overpaid or underpaid tax at the end of the year will normally receive a tax calculation from HMRC on form P800 and shortly afterwards receive a tax repayment, or be asked to pay any tax due.
- If the tax underpaid is no more than £3,000, the underpayment can be settled through PAYE in the following tax year.
|For tax year||2017/18|
|Issue P60s to employees||31 May 2018|
|P11D and P11D(b)||6 July 2018|
|Paper version of self-assessment return||31 October 2018|
|Online self-assessment return||31 January 2019|
- Where taxpayers submit the 2017/18 self assessment tax return by 30 December 2018, they can request that underpaid tax, within limits, is collected through PAYE code in the following tax year.
- A late filing penalty of £100 will be issued if the self assessment return is not submitted within the deadlines indicated above. This applies even if no tax is due.
- Further late filing penalties are due if the self assessment return is more than 3, 6 and 12 months late.
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