Tax Facts 2024-25

Welcome to the 2024-25 Spring Budget Tax Facts

These pages are prepared for guidance only. We recommend that you contact us for advice before acting on any information contained in the document and we cannot accept responsibility for any action taken without such advice.

Personal Tax

Main personal allowances

Personal income tax allowance (PA)£12,570£12,570
Marriage allowance (transferable)£1,260£1,260
Blind person's allowance£3,070£2,870
Rent-a-room relief£7,500£7,500
Trading Income£1,000£1,000
Property Income£1,000£1,000


  1. PA is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which Adjusted Net Income (ANI) exceeds £100,000, so PA is nil when ANI is £125,140.
  2. ANI is total taxable income, less qualifying pension contributions and Gift Aid donations.
  3. Marriage allowance is the transferable part of the PA and is available only to married couples and civil partners born after 5 April 1935. It can be transferred to their spouse or civil partner as long as the recipient is not a higher or additional rate taxpayer.
  4. The rent-a-room exemption is available where the taxpayer lets out part of the home they live in as furnished residential accommodation.
  5. The trading and property income allowances have various conditions that restrict their availability.
  6. Where rent-a-room, trading or property income exceed the relevant limit above, that limit (rather than expenses) may be deducted from gross income.

Income tax bands

Savings Rate Band£5,000£5,000
Basic Rate Band (BRB)£37,700£37,700
Higher Rate Band (HRB)£37,701-£125,140£37,701-£125,140
Additional rateover £125,140over £125,140
Personal Savings Allowance (PSA)
– Basic rate taxpayer£1,000£1,000
– Higher rate taxpayer£500£500
Dividend allowance£500£1,000


  1. The BRB (Scotland: intermediate rate band) and additional rate threshold are extended by the grossed-up equivalent of personal pension contributions and Gift Aid donations paid by the taxpayer in the tax year, or treated as paid in the tax year.
  2. Taxable income usually uses up the rate bands in the following order:
    • G 'General income' (employment, pensions, business profits, rent)
    • S 'Savings income' (mainly interest)
    • D 'Dividends' (distributions from companies/most unit trusts)
  3. The savings rate band is part of the basic rate band, meaning that to the extent that savings income falls in the first £5,000 of the basic rate band, it is taxed at nil rather than 20%.
  4. Different bands and rates apply to general income in Scotland.

Income tax rates

Rates differ for:GSDGSD
Basic rate20208.7520208.75
Higher rate404033.75404033.75
Additional rate454539.35454539.35


  1. The PSA taxes interest at nil, where it would otherwise be taxable at 20% or 40%. It is not available to an additional rate taxpayer.
  2. Dividends are usually taxed as the ‘top slice’ of income. The Dividend Allowance taxes the first £500 (2023/24: £1,000) of dividend income at nil rather than the rate that would otherwise apply.

Income tax bands and rates - Scotland

Starter rate19%(19%)£2,306£2,162
Basic rate20%(20%)£2,307 – £13,991£2,163 – £13,118
Intermediate rate21%(21%)£13,992 – £31,092£13,119 – £31,092
Higher rate42%(42%)£31,093 – £62,430£31,093 – £125,140
Advanced rate45%(N/A)£62,431 – £125,140N/A
Top rate48%(47%)over £125,140over £125,140


The Scottish rates and bands do not apply for savings and dividend income, which are taxed at normal UK rates.

Remittance basis charge

Resident in the UK for2024/252023/24
7 of the preceding 9 tax years£30,000£30,000
12 of the preceding 14 tax years£60,000£60,000
15 of the preceding 20 tax yearsDeemed to be UK domiciled


  1. The remittance basis charge (RBC) is payable by non-UK domiciled individuals who claim the remittance basis and who have been resident in the UK for the periods shown.
  2. If remittance basis is claimed, foreign income or gains is only taxable in the UK when remitted to the UK.
  3. Those persons domiciled or deemed domiciled in the UK are not eligible to claim remittance basis.

Residential landlords

Proportion of finance costs allowable against letting incomeNilNil


  1. Finance costs comprise mainly interest, but include related matters such as arrangement fees.
  2. A tax reducer at 20% of the disallowed finance costs is available to reduce the landlord’s income tax liability, but is subject to certain restrictions.
  3. These rules do not affect qualifying furnished holiday lets, commercial property or corporate landlords.

High Income Child Benefit charge (HICBC)

Lower threshold£60,000£50,000
Upper threshold£80,000£60,000


  1. Only applicable to families who receive child benefit, where adjusted net income of higher earner is above lower threshold.
  2. HICBC is equivalent to 1% of child benefit received by the family, for every £200 (2023/24: £100) of adjusted net income over lower threshold.
  3. The higher earner in the family must declare child benefit received by them or their partner on their tax return.
  4. The recipient of child benefit can elect not to receive it in order to avoid the HICBC, without losing their right to accrue certain state benefits. Child benefit payments can subsequently be recommenced if the claimant chooses.


Registered pensions

Annual Allowance (AA) - maximum£60,000£60,000
Annual Allowance - minimum£10,000£10,000
Money Purchase Annual Allowance (MPAA)£10,000£10,000


  1. Tax relief is generally obtained on pension contributions in one of three ways:
    1. Under “net pay arrangements” i.e. contributions come out of gross pay;
    2. By “relief at source” (RAS) i.e. contributions are made net of basic rate tax (which the fund claims back from HMRC);
    3. Salary sacrifice (see note 12).
  2. Tax relief at the taxpayer’s marginal income tax rate is given on the individual’s pension contributions up to 100% of earnings, capped by the AA.
  3. Those with little or no UK relevant earnings can make pension contributions up to £3,600 gross (£2,880 net) per year.
  4. AA can be increased by unused allowance brought forward from the previous three tax years.
  5. AA is usually tapered down by £1 for every £2 of adjusted income over £260,000, to a minimum of £10,000.
  6. Annual allowance charge (for pension inputs exceeding the annual allowance) is levied at the individual’s highest marginal tax rate.
  7. Employers can contribute to the employee’s pension fund up to the AA per year, less any contributions made by the individual. Employer will enjoy tax relief on those contributions under the normal rules for business expenses.
  8. Investors in personal and other defined contribution pension schemes can currently access all of their pension savings once they reach age 55.
  9. When the investor takes benefits from such pension schemes under flexiaccess drawdown, up to 25% of the accumulated fund can be drawn as a tax-free lump sum. The balance is taxed at the investor’s marginal rate of tax that applies in the year those benefits are drawn.
  10. The maximum tax-free pension commencement lump sum is £268,275, unless a higher amount is “protected”.
  11. MPAA replaces AA where taxpayer has started to take taxable income from a defined contribution scheme (other than via an annuity) and has further pension inputs. There is no carry forward of unused MPAA.
  12. Salary sacrifice for pension contributions is very tax-efficient. An employee agrees to give up some of their salary in exchange for pension contributions by the employer, which are are exempt from income tax and National Insurance.
  13. The amount that must be paid to the employee for National Minimum Wage (NMW) purposes will be the post salary sacrifice amount, so a salary sacrifice can’t generally take an employee below the NMW. There is an exception where an employee is provided with work-related accommodation under a salary sacrifice arrangement.
  14. The post-salary sacrifice amount will apply for all tax, NIC and benefits purposes, including tax credits, pension net relevant earnings and statutory redundancy.
  15. ‘Auto enrolment’ (AE) makes it a legal requirement for all employers to automatically enrol their eligible employees into a workplace pension and make contributions to that pension.
  16. Under AE, the total minimum contribution is 8% of salary, of which the employer must fund a minimum of 3% of salary.
  17. Employees can opt out of AE but those that do will need to be re-enrolled every three years.
  18. Self-invested Personal Pensions (SIPPs) are a form of personal pension fund that can invest in a wider range of assets than other pension funds, where the investment is restricted to insurance-backed funds.
  19. In particular, the permitted investments include direct holdings of quoted investments and commercial property. The latter is often owned by SIPPs of business owners, with the property being rented to the business as premises from which to operate. The rental payments are tax-deductible for the business and tax-exempt receipts for the SIPP.
  20. Unlike other pension schemes, SIPPs are allowed to take on debt. They can (broadly) borrow up to 50% of their net asset value to invest in permitted investments.

State pension

Maximum amount per week2024/252023/24
Old state pension£169.50£156.20
New state pension£221.20£203.85


  1. An individual is eligible to draw the state retirement pension when he or she reaches State Pension Age (SPA). State Pension age is increasing for both men and women; it will be 66 by October 2020. Thereafter, it will gradually increase to 68.
  2. Individuals who reach SPA after 5 April 2016 receive the new state pension, which replaced the old state pension, the second state pension and pension credit.
  3. An individual who qualifies for the state pension may choose to defer claiming it. Any deferred pension will be paid at a higher rate than the normal pension.
  4. The state pension is taxable.

Investment reliefs

Annual investment limits2024/252023/24
Individual Savings Account (ISA)
– Overall limit£20,000£20,000
– Lifetime ISA (LISA)£4,000£4,000
– Junior ISA£9,000£9,000
Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)£2,000,000£2,000,000
Seed EIS (SEIS)£200,000£200,000
Venture Capital Trust (VCT)£200,000£200,000


  1. ISA investors can invest in any combination of cash or shares, up to the overall limits shown. The £4,000 LISA limit is part of the general ISA limit of £20,000, not additional to it.
  2. Taxpayers aged between 18 and 40 may open a LISA and invest up to £4,000 each year, which qualifies for a 25% Government bonus on amounts invested up to the age of 50.
  3. This benefit is retained as long as the money is either
    • put towards a first home costing up to £450,000, or
    • kept in the account until reaching age 60, or
    • withdrawn after being diagnosed with a terminal illness when having less than 12 months to live.
  4. If the money in a LISA is withdrawn in other circumstances, the bonus is clawed back, with an additional 5% charge (i.e. total charge of 25% of amount withdrawn).
  5. Junior ISAs are available to those aged under 18 and who don’t have a Child Trust Fund account. At age 18, their junior ISA becomes an adult ISA.
  6. EIS and VCT investments attract 30% Income Tax relief, but those schemes all have different qualifying rules.
  7. SEIS investments attract 50% Income Tax relief.
  8. Where the disposal proceeds from any capital gain are reinvested under EIS in the four-year period that starts one year before the date of the gain, all or part of the original gain can be deferred.
  9. Gains reinvested under SEIS, within the same tax year, up to the investment limit attract 50% exemption from CGT.
  10. Investments made under EIS and SEIS can be carried back to be treated as made in the previous tax year, subject to the investment limits.
  11. Gains on disposals of investments acquired under EIS and SEIS are exempt from CGT if investment conditions have not been broken. Disposals of VCT shares are exempt CGT (i.e. no gain or loss arises).
  12. Dividends from investments in VCTs do not attract income tax provided the original investment was made within the permitted maximum of £200,000 per year. Dividends received from EIS and SEIS schemes are taxable as normal.

National Insurance Contributions (NIC)

Class 1 NIC thresholds 2024/25

Lower Earnings Limit (LEL)£123£533£6,396
Primary Threshold (PT)£242£1,048£12,570
Secondary Threshold (ST)£175£758£9,100
Upper Secondary Threshold (UST)£967£4,189£50,270
Upper Earnings Limit (UEL)£967£4,189£50,270


  1. Employers and employees both contribute at rates dependent on the level of earnings during a weekly, monthly or annual earnings period.
  2. No employee NIC are payable on earnings between the LEL and the PT but, when reported by the employer, the employee accesses entitlement to contributory benefits.

Class 1 NIC rates 2024/25

PT/ST to UEL8%13.80%
Above the UEL2%13.80%
Class 1A/1BN/A13.80%


  1. No employee NIC are payable once the employee reaches state retirement age, but employer NIC continue to be payable.
  2. No employer NIC are payable on earnings up to the UST for:
    • employees aged under 21;
    • apprentices aged under 25;
    • armed services veterans in the first 12 months of civilian employment.
  3. Employers with physical premises in a Freeport tax site or in an Investment Zone may be eligible for some relief from employers’ Class 1 NIC. See Freeport
  4. A person with more than one employment can defer the payment of some employee NIC until after the end of the tax year. The total amount payable is then checked and limited, so the full 8% rate is only applied to income between the PT and the UEL.
  5. An 'employment allowance' of £5,000 per qualifying business gives exemption from Class 1 Employer NIC. Some businesses are excluded, including certain sole director companies and employers that had an employer’s Class 1 NIC liability of £100,000 or more for the previous year. Employee NIC are unaffected.
  6. Employer contributions (at 13.80%) are also due on most taxable benefits (Class 1A) and on the amount chargeable to income tax under a PAYE settlement agreement (Class 1B).
  7. When an employer reimburses non-deductible expenses to an employee, who has paid the initial cost themselves, the reimbursed amount is treated as earnings and is subject to PAYE and Class 1 NIC.

Class 2 NIC

Rates per week2024/252023/24
Flat rate (voluntary)£3.45£3.45
Flat rateN/A£3.45
Small Profits Threshold (SPT)£6,725£6,725


  1. From 6 April 2024, self-employed people with profits above the SPT are no longer required to pay Class 2 NIC. For 2023/24, Class 2 NIC was payable if profits were above £12,570.
  2. Those with profits above the SPT access entitlement to contributory benefits, while those whose profits are less than the SPT can pay Class 2 NIC voluntarily to maintain this access.

Class 3 NIC

Rates per week2024/252023/24
Flat rate£17.45£17.45


Anyone who wants to maintain State Pension rights may pay voluntary Class 3 NIC, but there are restrictions on paying Class 3 (or voluntarily paying Class 2) where the individual lives abroad.

Class 4 NIC

Lower profits limit (LPL)£12,570£12,570
Upper profits limit (UPL)£50,270£50,270
LPL to UPL6%9%
Above UPL2%2%


  1. Class 4 NIC are payable on profits from UK trades or professions that exceed the lower profits limit.
  2. Both Class 2 and Class 4 NIC are collected through self assessment.
  3. An individual who is both employed and self-employed may pay Class 1, Class 2 and Class 4 NIC, subject to the maximum limit for the year.

Employee Benefits

Employer-provided car benefit

Cars: Taxable benefit: List price multiplied by chargeable percentage

Electric Range
2024/25 & 2023/24
1-5070 - 1295
1-5040 - 698
1-5030 - 3912

Then a further 1% for each 5g/km CO2 emissions, up to a maximum of 37%.


  1. ‘List price’ is the list price when new, plus the cost of most accessories added, less any capital contribution (up to £5,000) by the employee.
  2. The employer must pay Class 1A NIC at 13.80% on the benefit.
  3. Diesel cars (with some exceptions, including cars featuring 48V mild-hybrid technology) suffer a 4% supplement on the table's figures, but are still capped at 37%.

Car fuel benefit

Benefit multiplier£27,800£27,800


  1. Where fuel is provided by the employer for private use in a company car, the percentage used to calculate the car benefit is applied to the benefit multiplier in order to determine the taxable benefit.
  2. The benefit is charged without reduction for contributions by the employee, unless all private fuel is paid for (in which case there is no benefit). This reimbursement by the employee must be done by 6 July following the end of the tax year, unless the fuel benefit is "payrolled", in which case the deadline is 1 June following the end of the tax year.
  3. There is no taxable benefit where an employer provides free charging points for electric vehicles at their premises.
  4. Where the employer provides the car and the employee provides the fuel, HMRC’s advisory fuel mileage rates can be used to reimburse the cost of fuel used on business journeys. This includes reimbursement of 9p/mile for electric cars. Those rates are updated each quarter and published at

Employer-provided van benefits

Ordinary van£3,960£3,960
Zero emissions vanNilNil
Fuel benefit£757£757


If the private use of a van is restricted to home-to-work travel, there is no taxable benefit, unlike for company cars.

Employment-related loans

Official Rate of Interest (ORI)Note 42.00%


  1. Where a director or employee receives one or more loans from an employer that in total exceed £10,000 at any point in the tax year, interest of at least the ORI must be paid to avoid a benefit charge. There must also be a contractual obligation to pay that interest.
  2. Where a benefit arises, the excess of the ORI over the actual interest paid must be applied to the value of the loan to calculate the benefit.
  3. Loans from a close company to shareholders of the company may also generate a tax charge for the company. A close company is (broadly) one under the control of 5 or fewer shareholders.
  4. At the time of publication, the ORI for 2024/25 has not been announced.

Tax-free mileage allowances

Employee's own transportper business mile
Cars, first 10,000 miles45p
Cars, over 10,000 miles25p
Business passengers5p


  1. The above mileage rates also apply to employees completing business journeys in their own electric vehicle, as long as the employee is charging the vehicle themself.
  2. Passenger must be completing the same business journey.
  3. For all except the business passengers' allowance, if the employer does not pay the full mileage rate, the employee can claim tax relief on any shortfall from HMRC.

Employee share schemes

Type of share schemeTax advantages
Share Incentive Plan (SIP)
Free shares worth up to £3,600 pa. Employee can buy up to £1,800 pa (or 10% of income if lower) out of pre-tax pay. Employer can match each share bought with up to two more.If shares left in the scheme for at least five years: no Income Tax or CGT on the value when they leave the scheme. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.
Enterprise Management Incentive (EMI)
Trading companies with fewer than 250 employees and assets up to £30m can grant options to selected employees to buy up to £250,000 worth of shares.No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised within ten years of option grant. Shares qualify for 10% rate of CGT on disposal if grant is at least two years before disposal.
Company Share Option Plan (CSOP)
Share options to buy up to £60,000 of shares can be granted to employees.No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised between three and ten years of grant. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.
Save As You Earn (SAYE)
Employees contribute up to £500 a month to a savings scheme, and use money to exercise share options.No Income Tax or NIC if option is exercised three years or more after the grant of option. Gains on disposal are subject to CGT.


  1. Generally, employees are charged to Income Tax on the value of shares that they are given or are issued to them by their employer, less any amount paid for the shares. NIC are also charged if the company is quoted, or the shares can be easily sold. If the employer operates one of the above tax-advantage schemes, the tax charges may be eliminated, reduced or deferred.
  2. The employer must register the share scheme with HMRC, using the online Employment Related Securities (ERS) system, by 6 July following the end of the tax year in which the scheme is implemented.
  3. Employers must file an annual return for each share scheme online through ERS by 6 July each year.
  4. The above is a very brief summary of the main tax-advantaged share schemes; other conditions apply.

Tax-free Childcare (TFC)

Contribution limit per child£8,000£8,000


  1. Tax-free Childcare (TFC) accounts are available to all eligible parents. You cannot use TFC if you are receiving childcare vouchers, a scheme that is closed to new entrants.
  2. Under TFC, where both parents work and earn a specified minimum income (but neither has income of more than £100,000 per year), they are able to put up to £8,000 a year per child into an account, which the Government will top up with 25p for every £1 contributed by the parents.
  3. A TFC account can be used to pay for childcare for a child aged 11 and under, except for disabled children, where the limits are doubled and contributions can continue up to the age of 17.
  4. Unlike the voucher scheme, TFC is available to the self-employed.
  5. You cannot get TFC at the same time as claiming Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit or Universal Credit.
  6. Parents of 3 and 4 year-olds may be eligible for up to 30 hours of government-funded childcare, for up to 38 weeks a year, subject to various qualifying condtions. This is extended to include 15 hours of childcare for parents of 2 year-olds from April 2024 and for parents of those aged 9 months and over from September 2024.

Main exempt benefits

Benefit itemLimit of exemption
Mobile phoneOne per employee
Subsidised mealsFor all employees in a staff canteen
Free parking at or near the employee's place of workNone
Pension contributionsAnnual allowance (see Pensions)
Personal incidental expenses when staying away from home£5 per night, £10 if abroad
Qualifying relocation expenses£8,000 per employee per move
Medical treatment to help an employee return to work from absence of at least 28 days.£500
“Trivial benefits” not given in recognition of work done (or to be done)£50 and not cash or a cash voucher; 6 x £50pa cap for directors of most small companies
Long-service awards where the service is not less than 20 years and no similar award has been made to the same employee within the previous 10 years.Non-cash awards of up to £50 per year of service
Christmas or other annual party open to staff generally£150 a head (including VAT) per employee attending (or £300 where employee can bring a guest)
Home working allowance if required to work from home£6 per week or £26 per month (or higher amount if there is evidence of higher costs incurred)

Capital Gains Tax

Annual Exempt Amount (AEA)

Individuals and deceased estates£3,000£6,000
Most trusts£1,500£3,000


  1. Each individual is entitled to an AEA, but that exemption may be denied if they claim the remittance basis (see Personal Tax).
  2. The AEA cannot be transferred, nor carried forward or back to another year.

Tax rate

Individual up to Basic Rate Limit (BRL)
– Residential property18%18%
– Other assets10%10%
Individual above BRL, Trusts and estates
– Residential property24%28%
– Other assets20%20%


  1. CGT is payable on capital gains made in the tax year, after deduction of capital losses, available reliefs and the AEA.
  2. There is no CGT on gains accrued to the date of a taxpayer’s death.
  3. There is no charge on disposals between spouses. On such disposals, the transferee takes over the transferor’s CGT cost.
  4. When a chargeable asset is given away, the donor is treated as receiving the full market value and is thus liable for CGT, unless a gift relief claim is made. This relief is only available on certain types of assets and, if a claim is made, the recipient is deemed to take over the donor’s CGT cost.
  5. CGT is normally payable on 31 January following the end of the tax year of disposal (e.g. 31 January 2026 for 2024/25) as part of the self assessment process. However, for disposals of UK residential property, any CGT is due within 60 days of completion of sale.
  6. Non-residents disposing of any UK land and buildings must report the disposal and pay any CGT within 60 days of completion.
  7. CGT is payable at 18% or 28% on receipts of carried interest.

Business Asset Disposal Relief (BADR)

Lifetime limit£1m£1m
CGT on qualifying disposals10%10%


  1. Disposals made by individuals or certain trustees can qualify for BADR.
  2. The asset disposed of must have been owned for at least two years and be one of:
    • a business or an interest in a business
    • business assets sold within three years of the business ceasing
    • shares in a trading company, of which the individual is an officer or employee and either holds at least 5% of the ordinary share capital or acquired the shares under an EMI scheme; other conditions apply
    • assets used by the shareholder’s ‘personal company’ or partnership and disposed of as an ‘associated disposal’ of 5% or more of either the company’s shares or the partnership interest.

Certain other CGT reliefs and exemptions

Taxpayer's only or main homeGain is exempt for the periods the taxpayer lives there, or is deemed to live there, plus the last 9 months of ownership.
Chattels (tangible movable property)If bought and sold for less than £6,000.
Any asset gifted to charityNot charged to CGT; lifetime gifts of quoted shares and land also enjoy income tax relief.
Assets which become of negligible valueDeemed to be sold at nil, to create loss, when an election is made.

Corporation Tax (CT)

Rates from1.4.20241.4.2023
Main rate (profits above £250,000)25%25%
Small profits rate (profits up to £50,000)19%19%
Marginal relief band (MRB)£50k – £250k£50k – £250k
Marginal relief fraction3/2003/200
Effective marginal rate26.5%26.5%


  1. Where profits are £250,000 or more, all of the company’s profits are taxed at 25%.
  2. Where profits are between £50,000 and £250,000, ’marginal relief’ reduces the average rate to somewhere between 19% and 25%. The effect of this calculation is that the first £50,000 of profits are taxed at 19% and the balance at 26.5%.
  3. These limits are split between the number of ‘associated companies’, which are (broadly) companies under common control plus any company exercising that control (subject to exceptions).
  4. Unless there is no substantial commercial interdependence between the companies, holdings of certain ‘associates’ (e.g. spouse, parents, siblings and children) may be attributed to an individual. The “substantial commercial interdependence” test considers financial, economic and organisational ties between the companies.
  5. Most companies must pay their Corporation Tax within nine months and a day after the end of the accounting period.
  6. Large companies or groups generally make four quarterly payments on account of Corporation Tax, starting in either the third or seventh month after the start of a 12-month accounting period, depending on level of profits. Interest runs on any underpayments until final settlement of the period’s liability.
  7. All companies must file Corporation Tax returns online within 12 months of the end of the accounting period.

Research and Development

Accounting periods beginning on/after1.4.2024
R&D Expenditure Credit (RDEC) scheme20%
R&D-intensive SMEs enhanced expenditure scheme86%


  1. RDEC is a taxable expenditure credit for qualifying R&D.
  2. The enhanced expenditure scheme gives an additional deduction for qualifying R&D.
  3. R&D-intensive companies are those that have R&D expenditure constituting at least 30% total tax-deductible P&L expenses plus capitalised R&D costs. Loss-making R&D intensive companies can claim a payable credit rate of 14.5% from HMRC in exchange for their losses (capped at £20,000 plus 3 x [PAYE & NIC]).
  4. Previously, most SMEs used the enhanced expenditure scheme, but with a payable tax credit rate for losses of 10% (or 14.5%, from 1 April 2023, for those with R&D expenditure constituting at least 40% of total expenditure).

Special reliefs

Intangible assets: goodwill, know-how and patent rightsDeduction given according to depreciation (“amortisation”) in the accounts, unless the circumstances in Note 1 below apply.
Profits from goods/services deriving from a patent generated by the entity10% rate of CT.
Certain creative industries, including those producing films or videos gamesEnhanced deductions for certain expenditure and losses surrendered for payable tax credits, but these reliefs are currently in transition to an expenditure credit system.


  1. Special restrictions apply to relief for amortisation of goodwill and customer-related intangibles:
    • No deduction if arising from incorporations from 3.12.14.
    • No deduction if arising from acquistions from 8.7.15 to 31.3.19.
    • Deduction at 6.5% pa if a purchase from 1.4.19, but qualifying amount limited to 6 x qualifying intellectual property purchased at the same time.
  2. The above is a brief summary of selected reliefs available to companies; other conditions apply in each case.

Capital allowances

Plant and machinery

Year to
Year to
Companies only
– First-year allowance (main pool)100%100%
– First-year allowance (special rate pool)50%50%
Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)
– Expenditure of up to £1m100%100%
New electric vans100%100%
Writing down allowance: general pool18%18%
Writing down allowance: special rate pool6%6%


  1. Neither capital expenditure nor depreciation is generally allowed as an expense, but 100% First-year allowance (FYA) effectively allows qualifying expenditure to be expensed in the accounting period of purchase.
  2. The writing down allowance (WDA) spreads the cost over several years, and is not related to the accounting depreciation.
  3. Special rate pool includes plant integral to buildings and thermal insulation.
  4. The special rate pool FYA provides an initial 50% relief on new plant and machinery that would qualify for 6% WDAs in the special rate pool.
  5. Cars are not usually eligible for the FYA or AIA. Exceptions include dual-control driving instructors’ cars and hackney carriages.
  6. In general terms, plant and machinery comprises items that perform a function in the business, rather than providing the setting within which the trade is conducted.

Motor cars purchased

From 1.4.21Allowance
CO2 (g/km)
New cars onlyNil100%
In general poolUp to 5018% pa
In special rate poolabove 506% pa


Unincorporated businesses: the allowance is reduced for private use of the car.

Structures and buildings allowances (SBA)

Fixed deduction p.a.3%


  1. The SBA is available on commercial buildings and structures purchased new or constructed on/after 29 October 2018 and used for a qualifying purpose.
  2. It is not available on residences or buildings situated in residences (e.g. garden offices), nor on the cost of land itself.
  3. On disposal of a qualifying structure or building, the acquirer continues to claim the allowances that would have been available to the previous owner.

Unincorporated Business Tax

Basis of assessment

From 2024/25Tax year


  1. Under tax year basis, the profits assessable for a tax year are those arising in the tax year.
  2. 2023/24 was a transition year, where businesses moved from the old system of assessment (“current year basis”) to the new one.
  3. The above rules apply also for partnerships and limited liability partnerships (LLPs).

Cash basis

Entry threshold – turnover up to:N/A£150,000
Exit threshold – turnover not more than:N/A£300,000


  1. Up to 2023/24, in order to use the cash basis, trading businesses had to opt in and their turnover be between the limits above.
  2. From 2024/25, the cash basis is the default method of calculating profits, with traders able to opt to use the accruals basis instead.
  3. Calculating taxable profits on the ‘cash basis’ involves comparing income received and expenditure paid, rather than invoiced or accrued.
  4. Up to 2023/24, using the cash basis meant that a number of special rules applied (e.g. a maximum deduction of £500 for interest and losses only being able to be carried forward). These special rules have been abolished for 2024/25, so that trading businesses using the cash basis have the same reliefs available as those using the accruals basis.
  5. Certain businesses are not permitted to use the cash basis, including: farmers using the herd basis, persons using profit averaging and LLPs.
  6. Unincorporated property businesses use the cash basis. The key differences to the rules for trading businesses are:
    • the entry and exit thresholds are both £150,000; above this, the accruals basis must be used.
    • cash basis is the default position for such businesses, but they can elect to use accrual accounting.

Flat rate deductions

Item used for businessPermitted deduction
Taxpayer's car or goods vehicleUp to 10,000 miles pa45p/mile
 Over 10,000 miles pa25p/mile
Taxpayer's home (use per month)25 - 50 hours£10/month
 51 - 100 hours£18/month
 101 hours or more£26/month
Business premises partly used as home (e.g. public house or B&B)Private use adjustment
 1 occupant£350/month
 2 occupants£500/month
 3 or more occupants£650/month


  1. Unincorporated businesses can choose the above fixed rate deductions to use instead of calculating the business proportion of actual expenditure.
  2. 'Use of home' deduction covers rent, utilities and other similar costs. It does not cover internet or telephone expenses.
  3. 'Use of vehicle' does not cover finance element of lease or hire purchase.
  4. 'Use of business premises' amounts are deducted from the actual expenses of running the building.

Property Taxes

Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (ATED)

Property valueAnnual charge to
£0.5m – £1m£4,400£4,150
£1m – £2m£9,000£8,450
£2m – £5m£30,550£28,650
£5m – £10m£71,500£67,050
£10m – £20m£143,550£134,550
Over £20m£287,500£269,450


  1. The ATED applies to 'high value' residential properties owned via a corporate structure, unless the property is used for a qualifying purpose.
  2. There are many reliefs that can remove or reduce the charge, but in order to claim a relief, a Relief Declaration Return (RDR) must be submitted.
  3. The ATED return, RDR and any tax due must generally reach HMRC by 30 April within the relevant year.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)

Residential property

Purchase priceRate on band
Up to £250,000Nil
£250,001 - £925,0005%
£925,001 - £1.5m10%
Over £1.5m12%


  1. A supplement of 3% of the total purchase price applies where someone owning one or more residences acquires an additional residence for more than £40,000, unless they are replacing their main residence. It also applies to all corporate purchasers. A supplement also applies to Land & Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) and Land Transaction Tax (LTT). For LBTT it is 6%, but LTT has specific higher rates applying in different bands. These taxes are covered below.
  2. First-time buyers purchasing a property for up to £625,000 pay SDLT at a nil rate on the first £425,000 of the price.
  3. Where purchaser is a company (or partnership including a corporate member) and price is over £500,000, SDLT is 15% of total purchase price, if ATED exemptions or reliefs do not apply.
  4. Non-residents are subject to a 2% supplement on the above rates.
  5. New leases with a net present value of rents exceeding £125,000 attract SDLT of 1% of that excess.

Commercial property

Purchase price for freeholdRate on band
Up to £150,000Nil
Between £150,001 and £250,0002%
Over £250,0005%

Net present value of rent for leaseRate on band
Up to £150,000Nil
Between £150,001 and £5m1%
Over £5m2%


New leases with an NPV of rents exceeding £150,000 attract SDLT of 1% up to an NPV of £5m, when the rate increases to 2%.

Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) - Scotland

Residential property

Purchase priceRate on band
Up to £145,000Nil
£145,001 - £250,0002%
£250,001 - £325,0005%
£325,001 - £750,00010%
Over £750,00012%


  1. For first-time buyers, the nil band is extended to £175,000.
  2. The additional residence supplement is 6% of total purchase price.

Commercial property

Purchase priceRate on band
Up to £150,000Nil
£150,001 - £250,0001%
Over £250,0005%


  1. The above rates of LBTT also apply to any lease premium on commercial properties.
  2. New Leases with an NPV of rents exceeding £150,000 attract LBTT of 1% up to an NPV of £2m, when the rate increases to 2%.

Land Transaction Tax (LTT) - Wales

Residential property

Normal ratesAdditional residence
supplement rates
Purchase Price £000Rate on bandPurchase Price £000Rate on band
Up to £225NilUp to £1804.00%
£225 - £4006.00%£180 - £2507.50%
£400 - £7507.50%£250 - £4009.00%
£750 - £1,50010.00%£400 - £75011.50%
Over £1,50012.00%£750 - £1,50014.00%
Over £1,50016.00%

Commercial property

Purchase price for freeholdRate on band
Up to £225,000Nil
£225,001 - £250,0001%
Between £250,001 and £1m5%
Above £1m6%

Net present value of rent for leaseRate on band
Up to £225,000Nil
Between £225,001 and £2m1%
Over £2m2%

Value Added Tax

VAT rates

 VAT rateVAT fraction
Standard rate20%1/6
Lower or reduced rate5%1/21
Zero rate0%-


  1. Reduced rate applies to a small range of supplies, including domestic fuel and power and some conversions and renovations of residential property.
  2. Zero rate applies to a range of supplies, including some types of food, books and newspapers, new houses and children’s clothes. VAT is charged at a zero rate to the customer, but the supplier can recover VAT on costs.
  3. Exempt supplies include many land-related supplies, insurance, finance, education, health and welfare, and non-profit sports clubs. No VAT is charged to the customer, but the supplier cannot recover VAT on costs.

VAT thresholds

Registration – Turnover for last 12 months£90,000£85,000
Deregistration – Turnover next 12 months£88,000£83,000


  1. An unregistered business must register for VAT if it has made taxable supplies that equal or exceed the registration threshold in the last 12 months, up to any month-end, or if it expects to exceed that threshold in the next 30 days alone. Taxable supplies include reduced rate and zero-rated sales but not exempt sales. Businesses with taxable supplies below the registration limit can register voluntarily.
  2. A VAT-registered business can apply to deregister if it can satisfy HMRC that taxable supplies in the next year will not exceed the deregistration threshold.
  3. Businesses that are VAT-registered must comply with the Making Tax Digital (MTD) provisions. These mean that businesses will have to keep their records digitally for VAT and provide VAT return information through MTD functional compatible software.
  4. Most VAT returns are prepared for three-month periods, and must be filed electronically within seven days of the end of the month following the return period.
  5. Payment of VAT must be made electronically, and must be received by HMRC by the same deadline as the return or be paid by direct debit.
  6. A construction industry business making a supply to another such business will not usually charge output tax. Instead, the customer will account for the output tax itself through the reverse charge mechanism.
  7. The VAT rules on imports and exports are complex and have changed since the UK left the EU. Specialist advice should be sought in this area, as it should for transactions in goods between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Small business schemes

Annual turnoverJoiningLeaving
Flat-rate scheme (FRS)£150,000£230,000
Annual accounting£1,350,000£1,600,000
Cash accounting£1,350,000£1,600,000


  1. When using the FRS, the VAT paid to HMRC by the business is a fixed percentage (based on business category) of ‘FRS turnover’ rather than the net of output tax over input tax.
  2. Businesses in their first year of VAT registration are entitled to a 1% discount on the normal FRS percentage for their business category.
  3. Under FRS, input VAT is not recoverable, unless it relates to the purchase of a capital asset costing £2,000 or more (including VAT).
  4. The special rules for ‘limited cost traders’ mean that they are likely to be worse off by using the FRS. These are businesses that spend an amount (including VAT) on relevant goods that is either:
    • less than 2% of their VAT flat rate turnover; or
    • greater than 2% of their VAT flat rate turnover but less than £1,000 per year.
  5. ‘Relevant goods’ excludes many items, for example food or drink for the trader or staff, capital expenditure goods of any value and (for most businesses) vehicle costs.
  6. Under annual accounting, the business files a single VAT return each year instead of one every three months.
  7. Under annual accounting, businesses will pay their VAT in nine monthly instalments of 10% of the previous year’s liability. The instalments are payable at the end of months 4-12 of the current annual accounting period. Alternatively, businesses may choose to pay their VAT in three quarterly instalments of 25% of the previous year’s liability (if there was one) falling due at the end of months 4, 7 and 10.
  8. The balance of VAT for the year is then due, together with the annual VAT return, two months after the end of the annual accounting period.
  9. When using the cash accounting scheme, the business only pays VAT to HMRC when its customers have paid the business, but it can only recover VAT on expenses actually paid for, rather than accrued.

Option to tax

  1. Supplies of land and buildings, such as freehold sales or renting, are normally exempt from VAT. This means that no VAT is payable, but the person making the supply cannot normally recover any of the VAT incurred on their own expenses related to the supply.
  2. You can ‘opt to tax’ non-residential land; this will include any buildings or structures permanently affixed to the land. Once you have opted to tax, all the supplies you make of your interest in the land will normally be standard-rated (e.g. you will have to charge VAT on disposal proceeds or rents). As a result, you will normally be able to recover any VAT you incur in making those supplies.
  3. You must notify HMRC within 30 days of opting to tax, although in some circumstances they will accept late notification.
  4. There are limited circumstances in which an option to tax may be revoked, including:
    • Within 6 months of the option taking effect, providing no VAT has become chargeable on a supply of the land as a result of the option;
    • 20 years after the option first took effect.

Inheritance Tax (IHT)

Rates and thresholds from2024/252023/24
Nil Rate Band (NRB)£325,000£325,000
Residential enhancement (RNRB)£175,000£175,000
Tax paid on legacies on death40%40%
Tax paid if at least 10% of net estate
is left to charity on death
Gifts made up to seven years before
death (see lifetime gifts)
Chargeable lifetime transfers to trusts20%20%


  1. RNRB is available for transfers on death of a main residence (or assets of an equivalent value if the main residence has been sold) to direct descendents. It tapers away at the rate of £1 for every £2 of estate value (before reliefs and exemptions) above £2m.
  2. Up to 100% of the proportion of a deceased spouse’s/civil partner’s unused NRB and RNRB may be claimed to increment the current NRB and RNRB (before reliefs and exemptions) when the survivor dies.
  3. Gifts or legacies to charities are not charged to IHT.
  4. IHT due on a deceased’s estate and on gifts within seven years of death is generally due six months after the month of death, but in practice it must be paid before probate is granted.
  5. If the donor pays the IHT due on a chargeable lifetime transfer to a trust, the effective rate is 25%.
  6. IHT on chargeable lifetime transfers to trusts is payable within 6 months from the end of the month of transfer.

Lifetime gifts

Reduced tax charge on gifts up to seven years before death
Years before death0-33-44-55-66-7
Percentage of IHT
death charge payable


Lifetime gifts between individuals (‘potentially exempt transfers’) are only charged to IHT if the donor dies within seven years of the gift.

Exempt gifts

Amount of reliefConditions
£3,000 paAmount per donor (lifetime gifts only); unused exemption can be carried forward one year
£250 paDe minimis amount per recipient (lifetime gifts only)
UnlimitedRegular gifts out of surplus income
UnlimitedTo UK domiciled spouse or civil partner
£325,000To non-domiciled spouse/civil partner by a UK-domiciled person (lifetime limit)
£5,000From parent of a party to a marriage
£2,500From a grandparent (or remoter ancestor) of a party to a marriage
£1,000From any other person to a party to a marriage

Business and agricultural property

Amount of reliefProperty and conditions
100%All shareholdings in unquoted trading companies; an unincorporated business or interest in such a business
50%Controlling shareholding in quoted company; land and buildings used by either a trading company controlled by the owner, or a partnership where they are a partner
100%Agricultural value of qualifying farmland and buildings


In all cases the property must have been owned for at least two years; and other conditions apply.


Tax rates2024/25
Type of trustLife interestDiscretionary
Rate on dividend income8.75%39.35%
Rate on other income20%45%
CGT rate on residential property24%28%
CGT rate on other gains20%20%
CGT annual exempt amount (AEA)£1,500£1,500


  1. Trustees are liable to Income Tax on the trust income, CGT on the trust gains and, in some circumstances, IHT.
  2. Discretionary trusts pay tax at 8.75% or 20% on income used to pay trust expenses on another £1,000 of income, before paying at the main rates (39.35% or 45%).
  3. Trusts with income up to £500 will not pay tax.
  4. Trusts for vulnerable beneficiaries (such as disabled people) may reduce their effective tax rates if an election is made.
  5. The CGT AEA is divided between trusts established by the same settlor since 6.6.1978, to a minimum of £300.
  6. Trustees are liable to pay IHT in a variety of circumstances; appropriate professional advice is essential.
  7. Income beneficiaries of life interest trusts (‘liferent’ trusts in Scotland) are treated as entitled to the income of the trustees, and pay tax on it in the year it arises to the trust, with a credit for tax paid by the trustees. These beneficiaries are called life tenants of the trust (‘life renters’ in Scotland).
  8. Beneficiaries of discretionary trusts pay tax on income distributed to them by the trustees, which is treated as paid with a tax credit of 9/11 of the cash received (i.e. a £45 tax credit for every £55 of income distributed).
  9. Any beneficiary receiving income from a trust is given an R185 form showing the income received and the appropriate tax credit. For life interest trusts, this will reflect the underlying income that has been distributed by the trustees.
  10. The beneficiary will declare the income on their own tax return and pay tax at their own marginal rate on it, with credit given for the tax on the R185.

Key Deadlines

Payment deadlines

Self assessment2024/252023/24
1st payment on account31 January20252024
2nd payment on account31 July20252024
Balancing payment31 January20262025
Capital Gains Tax31 January20262025
National Insurance
Class 1A NIC19 July20252024
Class 1B NIC19 October20252024


  1. Payments on account for 2024/25 are based on 2023/24 self-assessed Income Tax and Class 4 NIC. The balancing payment includes Class 2 NIC.
  2. Missing any payment dates leads to interest being charged at Bank of England base rate plus 2.5% (currently 7.75%).
  3. Missing the balancing payment date by 30 days will lead to a 5% penalty.
  4. When the balancing payment is 6 and 12 months late, further 5% penalties apply on each occasion.
  5. Employment income is charged to both Income Tax and to Class 1 NIC.
  6. Tax and NIC are normally paid by the employer through the PAYE system, under which the PAYE code makes adjustments for tax reliefs due and some tax due on other income.
  7. Where a payment date is the 19th of the month, any cheque must reach HMRC by that date, or the business day preceding it (if the 19th falls on a week-end or Bank Holiday). Online payments can reach HMRC by 22nd of the month without incurring interest.
  8. An employee who has overpaid or underpaid tax at the end of the year will normally receive a tax calculation from HMRC on form P800 and shortly afterwards receive a tax repayment, or be asked to pay any tax due.
  9. Where taxpayers submit their self assessment tax return by 30 December following the tax year, they can request that underpaid tax of up to £3,000 is collected through their PAYE code in the subsequent tax year.
  10. CGT payment deadlines for UK land and buildings have special rules. See Capital Gains Tax

Filing deadlines

For tax year2023/24
Issue P60s to employees31 May 2024
P11D and P11D(b)6 July 2024
Paper version of self-assessment return31 October 2024
Online self-assessment return31 January 2025


  1. A late filing penalty of £100 will be issued if the self assessment return is not submitted within the deadlines indicated above. This applies even if no tax is due.
  2. Further late filing penalties are due if the self assessment return is more than 3, 6 and 12 months late.
  3. CGT filing deadlines for UK land and buildings have special rules. See Capital Gains Tax


Freeports are special areas within the UK’s borders where different economic regulations apply, including important tax breaks. Freeports in England are centred around one or more ports (air, rail or sea), but can extend up to 45km beyond the port(s). In England there are eight Freeports and two each in Scotland and Wales.


  1. In Northern Ireland, no freeport site has yet been designated.
  2. There is SDLT relief on land purchases within Freeport tax sites in England, where that property is to be used for qualifying commercial activity.
  3. When companies invest in qualifying new plant and machinery, Freeport tax sites provide 100% tax relief in the same tax period that the cost was incurred.
  4. Enhanced Structures and Buildings Allowance (SBA) at 10% p.a. (rather than the normal 3% p.a.) is available for firms constructing or renovating structures and buildings for non-residential use within Freeport tax sites.
  5. Employers operating in a Freeport tax site will pay 0% employer NIC on the salaries of any new employee working in that Freeport site. This 0% rate applies for up to three years per employee on earnings up to £25,000 per annum. An employee will be deemed to be working in the Freeport tax site if they spend 60% or more of their working hours in that tax site.
  6. Up to 100% relief from business rates on qualifying business premises is available to new and certain existing businesses in Freeport tax sites in England. This applies for 5 years from the point at which the beneficiary first receives relief.
  7. Businesses operating within Freeport customs sites receive tariff benefits, including duty deferral while the goods remain on site and duty inversion if the finished goods exiting the Freeport attract a lower tariff than their component parts.
  8. Freeport tax reliefs must be claimed by 30 September 2031

Investment Zones

The government has also announced thirteen Investment Zones around the UK. They have been introduced with a view to “catalysing high-potential knowledge-intensive growth clusters”. Each Zone will benefit from a £160m funding package over 10 years.


  1. Investment Zones can offer the same tax breaks as Freeports, but some are not intending to offer tax incentives.
  2. Funding is available from 2024/25 and Zones will run until the end of 2033/34.

Did you find what you were looking for ? No - then please email us and we will get straight back to you.

If you have any ideas or thoughts on how we can improve this website for your benefit then please contact us. All comments and criticisms welcome.

Our Latest News

Spring Budget Summary - 6th March 2024

The Budget summary cover the key tax changes announced in the Chancellor's speech and includes tables of the main rates and allowances.

This budget was likely Jeremy Hunt's final chance to win votes ahead …

Newton Abbot

  • Vantage Point House
  • Silverhills Road
  • Decoy Industrial Estate
  • Newton Abbot
  • Devon
  • TQ12 5ND